We have our small family in this vast universe. In the outer arm of the Milky Way galaxy, is a medium sized G-class yellow star revolving around the galactic center at 250Km/sec.We call it the Sun.
We adore it, we worship it and it is the biggest source for the possibility of life on the earth. Around this giant, 8 planets, some dwarf planets, thousands of asteroid and comets revolve around their orbit to complete as many circle around.
Only our Earth, the third planet from the sun has life and with millions of years of evolution we have become such evolved beings who can ask the very basic question. How was this solar family formed? Let’s go to the point of the Big Bang.
The production of particles after the big bang is known as Nucleo-synthesis. After the first 2 minutes of the Big Bang, first nucleus was formed. Nuclei of hydrogen, helium and lithium were one of the first to be produced in the early oven of the universe.
But very first atoms were developed far later, around 380,000 years after the Big Bang. Up to that point, the universe was hot enough to repel electrons from getting attached to the nucleus.
After 380,000 years the temperature of the universe reduced at suitable scale and electrons were able with the nucleus to form the very first hydrogen atom.
Hydrogen Clouds/Nebular Clouds
These hydrogen atoms in vast amount formed the hydrogen cloud known as nebular clouds. The nebular clouds are potent seed for the production of galaxies.
Where the concentration was high enough, the hydrogen atoms collapse under each other’s gravitational force and clump together to form the most natural shape in the universe i.e. sphere.
These spherical balls of hydrogen can continue to collapse and further form a black hole but due to high temperature generated by continuous collapse, it causes the hydrogen atoms to fuse together and this process releases a huge amount of energy.
This energy acts in two ways. One, it causes the outward degeneracy pressure that balances inward acting gravitational force that puts the shape of spherical ball in equilibrium.
Secondly, the left over energy is generated as heat and light. This long process makes the spherical ball a nuclear woven, generating heat and light, and is known as a Star.
Class Of Stars
Depending upon the mass and intensity of stars, they are classified as O, B, A, F, G, K and M. O type being the largest and M type being the smallest. Our sun is classified as G class star. Thus our giant sun is just a medium class star in the cosmic scale.
But the very process of formation of sun must have been same as the formation of any other star in the Universe. Stars are classified with respect to the family it had.
For example, our solar family consists of rocky planets filled with metals, non-metals and gases. On the other hand, it also has gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn.
Formation of Heavier Elements
The question arises, where are all these heavier elements are produced? The answer is, inside the star!
Hydrogen atoms combine to form helium atoms and due to their high mass they get deposited in the center. When all Hydrogen atoms are used, then Helium atoms fuse to form lithium atoms and so on.
Bigger the star, more number of different kinds of elements get cooked up in the hearth of the mother star. Elements up to iron and nickel are produced in the stellar nucleo-synthesis.
Higher elements than nickel is produced when a neutron star explodes into a supernova. Supernova releases enough energy required to cook heavier elements. Thus twinkling stars are the reason we exists. We are star dust.
But our sun is not that big star to produce all these elements inside it. The best it can do is to cook all hydrogen atoms and spend its retirement as white dwarf. So where all these elements inside earth, Venus and mars come from?
Formation of Planets
When a massive star in its last stage disintegrates, it’s leftover are spread across the space and these leftovers are source of the heavier elements that form the planets around the sun. Thus our sun is not a first generation star but second or maybe third.
The heavier elements present in our solar family is because a massive star disintegrated in the past. Its hydrogen atoms coalesce to form the sun and heavier elements collapsed to form modern day planets.
Due to disintegration of the previous massive star in a supernovae explosion, there is a generated dense region around which the leftovers get clumped together, and in the quite disproportionate manner.
The dense cloud in the center eventually became the central sun, around which small concentrated zones that evolved into planets, keep revolving.
Nuclear Fusion & Solar Winds
When the nuclear fusion started inside the sun, the sun became stable and solar winds coming from the sun swept away the gases from the nearby planets, and they were left with rocky surfaces.
But the effects of solar wind was small at the larger distances, thus the farther planets were made completely of gaseous elements known as gas giants, such as Jupiter and Saturn. Millions of years were required for the solar system to exist as it is today.
Our solar system is nearly 5 billion years old and will continue to exist for another 5 billion years. This is one big family and each planet is doing it’s part in silently maintaining the balance around here.